1. Also involved are Lactobacillus casei and acidophilus and Actinomyces viscosus and naeslundii but the primary culprit is S. mutans. (also s. gordonii , salivarius and s. sobrinus. 27, 28 )
3. http://www.alpharx.com/sm.html (link defunct 11-11-2003. Archived.)
6. Microbiol Rev. 1980 Jun;44(2):331-84. Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Hamada S, Slade HD.
7. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev1986: 50: 352 380.
- "The term 'facultative' is used to describe organisms which can grow
in the presence or absence of oxygen - that is, they can generate ATP
via respiration if oxygen is present or by fermentation if oxygen is
absent or insufficient. Such organisms are usually referred to as
- Fermentation is defined as an energy releasing process that takes
place only under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation is a process where
enzymes produced by the bacteria control an anaerobic (non oxygen)
breakdown of fructose as an energy source for growth.
"Plaque can be defined as a complex microbial community, with
greater than 10^10 bacteria per milligram. It has been estimated that
as many as 400 distinct bacterial species may be found in plaque. In
addition to the bacterial cells, plaque contains a small number of
epithelial cells, leukocytes, and macrophages. "
20. http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/Lecture23Chapter25.htm |
40. Pediatr Dent 2000
Sep-Oct;22(5):381-4 Microbial contamination of toothbrushes and their
decontamination. Nelson Filho P, Macari S, Faria G, Assed S, Ito IY.
42. http://www.usatoday.com/life/health/doctor/lhdoc139.htm (defunct)
45. J Clin Periodontol 2000
Mar;27(3):157-61 Effect of an essential oil-containing antiseptic
mouthrinse on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. Fine DH,
Furgang D, Barnett ML, Drew C, Steinberg L, Charles CH, Vincent JW
66. Childers NK, Tong G, Mitchell S,
Kirk K, Russell MW, Michalek SM (1999). A controlled clinical study of
the effect of nasal immunization with a Streptococcus mutans antigen
alone or incorporated into liposomes on induction of immune responses.
Infect. Immun. 67(299.9999223):618-623.
67. Childers NK, Tong G, Li F,
Dasanayake AP, Kirk K, Michalek SM (2002). Humans immunized with
Streptococcus mutans antigens by mucosal routes. J Dent Res
68. Li F, Michalek SM, Dasanayake AP, Li
Y, Kirk K, Childers NK (2003). Intranasal immunization of humans with
Streptococcus mutans antigens. Oral Microbiol Immunol 18(5):271-7.
73. Plant Cell Rep (2004) 22:711-720. http://www.springerlink.com/...43V50UEY1RAVF5KJ.pdf (PDF)
82. http://www.fitmouth.com/framesets/main pages/reversing_decay.htm
91. Caries Risk Assessment and Management in the Dental Office. Draft by W. Stephan Eakle, based on D1 course handout May 2002.
111. Newbrun, Ernest, "Preventing dental caries: breaking the chain of transmission" The
Journal of the American Dental Association, June 1993, pp. 79-86
112. Slavkin HC, "First encounters: transmission of infectious oral diseases from mother to
child" The Journal of the American Dental Association 128 (6), 1997, pp. 773-778.
Kohler et al., "Preventive measures in mothers influence the
establishment of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in their infants," Archives of Oral Biology 28 (3), 1983, pp. 225-232).
120. Price, Weston. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. See chapter 22, table 2, for a summary. See also Kennedy, How to Save Your Teeth, pp. 2-3.
- Dextran is a polysaccharide (chain of simple sugars) composed of
glucose (a type of simple sugar) monomers (units of a polymer, such as
a polysaccharide), used as a means of storing food by bacteria and
yeasts. When dextrans are formed out of sucrose (another type of sugar)
by bacteria in the mouth, it makes dental plaque.
123. The estimation of more S. mutans in your mouth than S. sobrinus is
based on the use of a MS-bacitracin plate, which inhibits S. sobrinus
to a greater extent than S. mutans. Therefore, the actual incidence of
S. sobrinus may be higher than currently supposed.
124. Tanzer JM &Clive J. Quantitative considerations in
microbiological evaluations for caries: risks for type II errors
resulting from use of MSB agar. Oral Microbiol Immunol1986: 1: 28 30.
is dramatic evidence regarding the civilized diet's pernicious
influence on teeth, and especially refined sugar. Wherever Western
civilization has made its appearance over the past several centuries,
tooth decay and other health problems have followed in its wake. In the
1930s, Weston Price journeyed to earth's last remaining 'primitive'
civilizations. Price studied primitive civilizations and what happened
to them when introduced to the 'civilized' diet. On the average, the
'primitive' peoples exposed to civilized diets experienced a 3500%
(thirty-five times) increase in tooth decay, of the fourteen cultures
he studied. Their dental arches also degenerated, leading to crowded
1985, Dr. Jean C. Lapraz said he couldn't find bacteria or viruses that
could live in the presence of the essential oils of cinnamon or
oregano. He found many other oils displaying the same qualities."
138. Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/1/37
139. Poor oral health and coronary heart disease
140. Bacterial adhesion to oral tissues: a model for infectious diseases
150. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia (
) on human oral microflora. Cariogenic microorganisms gained prominence
at the expense of noncariogenic microorganisms in concert with the
saliva shutdown. These changes occurred before the onset of clinical
caries irrespective of whether or not a topical fluoride gel was used
as a caries preventive.
151. Colonization of the human oral cavity by a Streptococcus
mutans mutant producing increased bacteriocin. In two of the three
subjects, total (indigenous plus JH1005) S. mutans levels were
significantly decreased. The results provide additional support for the
role of bacteriocin production as an ecological determinant in
colonization by S. mutans.
152. Microbiological aspects of the chemical control of plaque and
gingivitis. Antimicrobial agents, delivered either by mouthrinse or
toothpaste, can be used to maintain plaque at levels compatible with
oral health by (a) reducing existing plaque, (b) preventing the
formation of new plaque, (c) selectively inhibiting those particular
bacteria that are associated with disease, and (d) inhibiting the
expression of virulence determinants.
153. PDF. A Caries Vaccine? Caries Res 2004;38:230-235.
"Cavity fighter: Planet Biotechnology, a California firm, is growing
antibodies in tobacco plants that could be used to fight tooth decay if
used in toothpastes or mouthwashes. ... Tobacco an ideal subject for
genetic research," Gail Gibson, Lexington (KY) Herald-Leader, 2/27/2000
Pit and fissure sealants in high-caries-risk individuals. J Dent Educ.
65(10): 1084-1090 2001. "There is good evidence that sealants can be
used efficaciously and effectively in high-risk children as long as the
sealant is retained. Sealants are more effective in preventing further
caries and providing cost savings in a shorter time span if placed in
children who have high rather than low caries risk."
159. http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/jul/lcprofile1_030714.html Volume 17 | Issue 14 | 45 | Jul. 14, 2003
162. Chlorhexidine induces DNA damage in rat peripheral leukocytes and oral mucosal cells
DA Ribeiro, AP Bazo, CA da Silva Franchi, ME … - Journal of Periodontal Research, 2004 - Volume 39 Issue 5 Page 358
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