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References

(revised and renumbered 9/06/2005)

1. Also involved are Lactobacillus casei and acidophilus and Actinomyces viscosus and naeslundii but the primary culprit is S. mutans. (also s. gordonii , salivarius and s. sobrinus. 27, 28 )

2. http://www.dent.ucla.edu/ce/caries/

3. http://www.alpharx.com/sm.html (link defunct 11-11-2003. Archived.)

4. http://www.aibs.org/.../may.96.mouth.html

5. http://microota.nutr.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp/foodmicro/jp/gallery/01.html

6. Microbiol Rev. 1980 Jun;44(2):331-84. Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Hamada S, Slade HD.

7. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev1986: 50: 352 380.

8. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~aralph/

9. nyu.edu - "The term 'facultative' is used to describe organisms which can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen - that is, they can generate ATP via respiration if oxygen is present or by fermentation if oxygen is absent or insufficient. Such organisms are usually referred to as 'facultative anaerobes'."

10. ohio-state.edu - Fermentation is defined as an energy releasing process that takes place only under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation is a process where enzymes produced by the bacteria control an anaerobic (non oxygen) breakdown of fructose as an energy source for growth.

11. http://www.lsic.ucla.edu/.../21Digestive.html

12. http://www.google.com/search?q=sucrose+s.+mutans

13. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/543glucose.html

14. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/543fructose.html

15. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/548HFsyrup.html

16. http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=polymerization

17. http://www.life.umd.edu/...Chapter25.htm

18. http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact303/Structure

19. http://www.dent.ucla.edu/pic/members/microbio/mdphome.html

"Plaque can be defined as a complex microbial community, with greater than 10^10 bacteria per milligram. It has been estimated that as many as 400 distinct bacterial species may be found in plaque. In addition to the bacterial cells, plaque contains a small number of epithelial cells, leukocytes, and macrophages. "

20. http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/Lecture23Chapter25.htm | X | X

21. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluoride+decreases+demineralization

22. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluoride+increases+remineralization

23. http://www.google.com/search?q=element+fluorine

24. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluorine+halogens

25. http://www.google.com/search?q=ionic+compounds

26. http://www.webelements.com/

27. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluoride+inhibit+enolase

28. http://www.fluoridedebate.com/question23.html

29. http://www.google.com/search?q="fluoride+pills"

30. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=fluoride+weakened+bones

31. http://www.google.com/search...fluoride+lowered+IQ

32. http://www.google.com/search...fluoride+cancer

33. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluoride+thyroid+dysfunction

34. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=fluoride+anemia

35. http://www.google.com/search?q=fluoride+liver+disease

36. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=fluoride+heart+disease

37. http://www.fluoridealert.org/downs-syndrome.htm

38. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=fluoride+atomic+bomb

39. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/MensHealth/menshealth_40.html

40. Pediatr Dent 2000 Sep-Oct;22(5):381-4 Microbial contamination of toothbrushes and their decontamination. Nelson Filho P, Macari S, Faria G, Assed S, Ito IY.

41. http://www.purebrush.com/

42. http://www.usatoday.com/life/health/doctor/lhdoc139.htm (defunct)

43. http://www.germterminator.com

44. http://www.nih.go.jp/JJID/LEC-94.html

45. J Clin Periodontol 2000 Mar;27(3):157-61 Effect of an essential oil-containing antiseptic mouthrinse on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. Fine DH, Furgang D, Barnett ML, Drew C, Steinberg L, Charles CH, Vincent JW

46. http://dentistry.about.com/b/a/138747.htm#more

47. http://homepage.mac.com/tikimac/tudhope/glossary/preservation.htm

48. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Biotene+mouthwash

49. http://www.voyle.net/Nano%20Research%20200/research00137.htm

50. http://www.skepticfiles.org/evolut/fostooth.htm

51. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=hydroxyapatite

52. http://dentistry.uic.edu/CraniofacialGenetics/ResearchTED.htm

53. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrometre

54. http://www.fitmouth.com/framesets/main%20pages/controlling_dental_plaque.htm

55. http://dentistry.about.com/health/dentistry/library/...

56. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=antimicrobial+agents

57. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=lactoferrin

58. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=lactoperoxidase

59. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=lysozyme

60. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=Lactoferrin+streptococcus+mutans

61. http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/66/2/480

62. http://www.pure-milk-calcium.com/Toothpaste.htm

63. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=Eco-DenT+Tooth+Powder

64. http://www.microbio.uab.edu/faculty/michalek/

65. http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=25357

66. Childers NK, Tong G, Mitchell S, Kirk K, Russell MW, Michalek SM (1999). A controlled clinical study of the effect of nasal immunization with a Streptococcus mutans antigen alone or incorporated into liposomes on induction of immune responses. Infect. Immun. 67(299.9999223):618-623.

67. Childers NK, Tong G, Li F, Dasanayake AP, Kirk K, Michalek SM (2002). Humans immunized with Streptococcus mutans antigens by mucosal routes. J Dent Res 81(3699.018):48-52.

68. Li F, Michalek SM, Dasanayake AP, Li Y, Kirk K, Childers NK (2003). Intranasal immunization of humans with Streptococcus mutans antigens. Oral Microbiol Immunol 18(5):271-7.

69. http://www.planetbiotechnology.com/

70. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=placebo+definition

71. http://www.qualitydentistry.com/htopics/vaccine/

72. http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9804/29/tooth.decay/

73. Plant Cell Rep (2004) 22:711-720. http://www.springerlink.com/...43V50UEY1RAVF5KJ.pdf (PDF)

74. http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/396_bone.html

75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tooth_enamel

76. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersaturated

77. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphate

78. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH

79. http://www.google.com/search?q=amelogenins

80. http://www.usc.edu/h...vol5/502/hscdental.html

81. http://www.google.com/search?q=enamel+remineralization

82. http://www.fitmouth.com/framesets/main pages/reversing_decay.htm

83. http://www.armandhammer.com/mybody/body_tips.asp

84. http://www.umich.edu/news/?Releases/2005/Aug05/r080405

85. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q=ReCaldent

86. http://www.fitmouth.com/framesets/main%20pages/controlling_dental_plaque.htm

87. http://depts.washington.edu/nacrohd/pilot_mroberts.htm

88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?...=11991460&dopt=Citation

89. http://www.philkaplan.com/thefitnesstruth/artificial_sweeteners.htm

90. http://users.hol.gr/~jelian/articles/caries.htm

91. Caries Risk Assessment and Management in the Dental Office. Draft by W. Stephan Eakle, based on D1 course handout May 2002.

92. http://www.contactpakistan.com/health/general/article11.htm

93. http://www.boston.com/globe/columns/foreman/archive/102301.htm

94. http://www.atcc.org/...ba,5244327,31501&text=mutans&max=20

95. http://www.mgscientific.com/store/group.asp?GROUP_ID=1607

96. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/99/22/14434

97. http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch013.htm

98. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap21.html

99. http://www.cehs.siu.edu/fix/medmicro/strep.htm

100. http://medicine.ucsd.edu/NizetLab/streptococcipage/streptococci.html

101. http://www.dentalcomfortzone.com/archive/AntibioticsHeartInfection.html

102. http://www.google.com/search?q=subacute+bacterial+endocarditis

103. http://www.bios.niu.edu/hill/bios213/lecture20.html

104. http://www.delphion.com/details?pn10=US04150116

105. http://www.delphion.com/details?pn10=US05352446

106. http://www.delphion.com/details?pn10=US04324782

107. http://www.agd.org/

108. http://www.agd.org/consumer/topics/decay/kissing.html

109. http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9902/14/pucker.up/

110. http://www.virginiasmiles.com/html/dentalnews/04contagious.html

111. Newbrun, Ernest, "Preventing dental caries: breaking the chain of transmission" The Journal of the American Dental Association, June 1993, pp. 79-86

112. Slavkin HC, "First encounters: transmission of infectious oral diseases from mother to child" The Journal of the American Dental Association 128 (6), 1997, pp. 773-778.

113. Kohler et al., "Preventive measures in mothers influence the establishment of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in their infants," Archives of Oral Biology 28 (3), 1983, pp. 225-232).

114. http://iadr.confex.com/...abstract_31697.htm

115. http://www.wellnessdentalcare.com/Library.html

116. http://www.msnbc.com/news/356289.asp?cp1=1

117. http://tooldoc.wncc.nevada.edu/dental.htm

118. http://www.google.com/search?q=fresh+fruit+caries

119. http://www.tidbitspuzzles.com/4-8-03.htm

120. Price, Weston. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. See chapter 22, table 2, for a summary. See also Kennedy, How to Save Your Teeth, pp. 2-3.

121. hyperdictionary - Dextran is a polysaccharide (chain of simple sugars) composed of glucose (a type of simple sugar) monomers (units of a polymer, such as a polysaccharide), used as a means of storing food by bacteria and yeasts. When dextrans are formed out of sucrose (another type of sugar) by bacteria in the mouth, it makes dental plaque.

122. http://members.tripod.com/~charles_W/tooth.html

123. The estimation of more S. mutans in your mouth than S. sobrinus is based on the use of a MS-bacitracin plate, which inhibits S. sobrinus to a greater extent than S. mutans. Therefore, the actual incidence of S. sobrinus may be higher than currently supposed.

124. Tanzer JM &Clive J. Quantitative considerations in microbiological evaluations for caries: risks for type II errors resulting from use of MSB agar. Oral Microbiol Immunol1986: 1: 28 30.


125. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/......pt=Abstract


126. http://www.fitmouth.com/...reversing_decay.htm

127. http://www.biochem.wisc.edu/research/enz_mech_struc.html


128. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/bact-dis.htm


129. http://www.create-your-healthy-home.com/bacteria.htm


130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar

131. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/S/sugarcan.html

132. http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/english/su/sugar.html

133. http://home1.gte.net/res0k62m/fluoride.htm#price"There is dramatic evidence regarding the civilized diet's pernicious influence on teeth, and especially refined sugar. Wherever Western civilization has made its appearance over the past several centuries, tooth decay and other health problems have followed in its wake. In the 1930s, Weston Price journeyed to earth's last remaining 'primitive' civilizations. Price studied primitive civilizations and what happened to them when introduced to the 'civilized' diet. On the average, the 'primitive' peoples exposed to civilized diets experienced a 3500% (thirty-five times) increase in tooth decay, of the fourteen cultures he studied. Their dental arches also degenerated, leading to crowded teeth."

134. http://research.amnh.org/vertpaleo/enamel/schmelz.html

134. http://www.crucible.org/oils_chemistry.htm"In 1985, Dr. Jean C. Lapraz said he couldn't find bacteria or viruses that could live in the presence of the essential oils of cinnamon or oregano. He found many other oils displaying the same qualities."

135. http://dentistry.about.com/...how+deep+do+toothbrushes+clean

136. http://biology.kenyon.edu/...streptococcus.htm?name=Streptococcaceae

137. http://www.microbio.uab.edu/faculty/michalek

138. Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/1/37

139. Poor oral health and coronary heart disease
http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/9/1631

140. Bacterial adhesion to oral tissues: a model for infectious diseases
http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/5/750

150. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia ( dry mouth ) on human oral microflora. Cariogenic microorganisms gained prominence at the expense of noncariogenic microorganisms in concert with the saliva shutdown. These changes occurred before the onset of clinical caries irrespective of whether or not a topical fluoride gel was used as a caries preventive.
http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/4/740

151. Colonization of the human oral cavity by a Streptococcus mutans mutant producing increased bacteriocin. In two of the three subjects, total (indigenous plus JH1005) S. mutans levels were significantly decreased. The results provide additional support for the role of bacteriocin production as an ecological determinant in colonization by S. mutans.
http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/66/6/1092

152. Microbiological aspects of the chemical control of plaque and gingivitis. Antimicrobial agents, delivered either by mouthrinse or toothpaste, can be used to maintain plaque at levels compatible with oral health by (a) reducing existing plaque, (b) preventing the formation of new plaque, (c) selectively inhibiting those particular bacteria that are associated with disease, and (d) inhibiting the expression of virulence determinants.
http://jdr.iadrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/7/1431

153. PDF. A Caries Vaccine? Caries Res 2004;38:230-235.

154. http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/...Extthfrm.htm

155. http://www.forces.org/evidence/pharma/appendix.htm "Cavity fighter: Planet Biotechnology, a California firm, is growing antibodies in tobacco plants that could be used to fight tooth decay if used in toothpastes or mouthwashes. ... Tobacco an ideal subject for genetic research," Gail Gibson, Lexington (KY) Herald-Leader, 2/27/2000

156. JA Weintraub. Pit and fissure sealants in high-caries-risk individuals. J Dent Educ. 65(10): 1084-1090 2001. "There is good evidence that sealants can be used efficaciously and effectively in high-risk children as long as the sealant is retained. Sealants are more effective in preventing further caries and providing cost savings in a shorter time span if placed in children who have high rather than low caries risk."

157. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?...q=CaroRx&btnG=Search

158. http://www.pano.com/Corporate/Executives...

159. http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/jul/lcprofile1_030714.html Volume 17 | Issue 14 | 45 | Jul. 14, 2003

160. http://www.planetbiotechnology.com/products.html#carorx

161.  http://www.aromaticsage.com/GYRDT.html

162.  Chlorhexidine induces DNA damage in rat peripheral leukocytes and oral mucosal cells 
DA Ribeiro, AP Bazo, CA da Silva Franchi, ME … - Journal of Periodontal Research, 2004 - Volume 39 Issue 5 Page 358

 

 

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